The Birth and Death of Stars

แปลภาษาอังกฤษเป็นไทย ครั้งนี้ ได้หยิบยกเรื่องของการกำเนิดของดวงดาว โลก และดวงอาทิตย์ รวมถึงการตายของดวงดาว (ดาวดับ) ว่า ดวงดาวต่างๆเกิดขึ้นได้อย่างไร และดับลงอย่างไร โดยจะขออธิบายแค่เพียงเล็กน้อยเท่านั้น เราจะไม่ได้ แปลภาษาอังกฤษเป็นไทย แบบบรรทัดต่อบรรทัด นะครับ เพื่อให้ผู้เรียนได้ลองแปลเองบ้าง อนุญาตให้เปิด ดิกชันแนรี่ได้ครับ

แปลภาษาอังกฤษเป็นไทย บางส่วน จากเนื้อเรื่องข้างล่างนี้

“ดวงดาวที่สว่างจ้า ฉันอยากเป็นเหมือนเธอ” เป็นบทกวีของ จอห์นคีท สำหรับพวกเรา ดวงดาวเป็นสิ่งที่ไม่เปลี่ยนแปลง แม้ว่าดวงดาวไม่ใช่สิ่งมีชีวิต มันก็มีช่วงชีวิต มันเกิด มันแก่ และตาย มันไม่มีการเปลี่ยนแปลงเพราะว่ามันจะคงอยู่เป็นเวลานาน 1 ล้านถึง 1000 ล้านปี ดวงอาทิตย์เป็นดวงดาวที่มีอายุ 5พันล้านปี และจะมีอายุอีก 5 พันล้านปี

ดวงดาวปล่อยพลังงานจำนวนมากออกมา ซึ่งเราเห็นได้ในระยะทางไกลๆ พลังงานนี้อยู่ในรูปนิวเคลียสของอะตอมในดวงดาว

อะตอมมีขนาดเล็กมาก มีนิวเคลียสล้อมรอบด้วยอิเลคตรอน

(1) “Bright star, would I were steadfast as thou art, “wrote the poet John keats, and, Indeed, to most of us, stars are steadfast (unchanging). Modern astronomers have a different picture of the stars, however, Although the stars are not alive, they have a lifespan. They are born, they grow old, and eventually they die. They do not appear to change because they last long time-millions to billions of years. Our sun is a star that is about five billion years old, and it will last about another five billion years.

(2) Stars releases tremendously large amounts of energy it is for this reason that they are visible at great distances-billions of billions of miles and more. This great energy is released by reactions between the nuclei of the atoms that are within the stars.

(3) All ordinary matter is made iup of atoms. Atoms are extremely small. if a hundred thousand of them were lined up, the line would be no longer than the thickness of this piece of paper. An atom consists of a central, very massive, nucleus surrounded by lightweight particles called electrons. The diameter of an atom is ten thousand to one hundred thousand times greater than the diameter of nucleus, but most of the mass of the atom is concentrated in the nucleus.

(4) At ordinary temperatures, atoms react with each other chemically by transferring or sharing electrons. At very high temperatures (millions of degrees), the nuclei of atoms will combine together to form larger nuclei. This process is called nuclear fusion. (In nuclear fission, the atoms split apart.) Two of the most important factors in the development of stars are nuclear fusion and the law of gravity.

(5) Because of the law of gravity, all material particles are attracted to each other Large clumps of gaseous material called nebulae (singular = nebula) occur because of gravity. Within these nebulae, stars are often formed. Particles of matter inside the nebulas attract each other and are pulled together into a smaller and smaller volume, forming a star. Young stars are made up mostly of hydrogen atoms, the simplest and least massive of all atoms.

(6) As the star shrinks in volume, the energy from gravity is changed to heat energy, and the temperature of the star rises. When the surface of the star reaches a temperature of about 2000 c, the star begins to shine. The shrinking continues until the center of the star reaches a temperature of a few million degrees. At this temperature, the hydrogen atoms in the star begin to combine to form helium atoms.

(7) The fusion of hydrogen to form helium is a process that takes place in a large number of stars. Such stars are called main sequence stars. The large the mass of the star, the higher is its temperature. Stars with higher temperatures shine more brightly. They also lose their hydrogen through fusion more rapidly. It will take our sun another five billion years to use up most of its hydrogen. Stars three times the mass of the sun will exhaust their hydrogen in a half billion years. Stars one half the mass of the sun will take two hundred billion years to do the same.

(8) As the hydrogen gets up, the central core of the star gets smaller and smaller, and its temperature rises to one hundred million degrees. This extremely high temperature causes the gases around the outside of the core to expand tremendously, and the star is then called a red giant. When our sun becomes a red giant (five billion years from now), the radius of its gases will extend out beyond the earth’s orbit. The earth will then be swallowed up by the sun.

(9) When the core of a star reaches a temperature of one hundred million degrees, the temperature is hot enough for a new kind of nuclear reaction to occur in the core. In this reaction, helium atoms combine to form larger atoms, starting with carbon and going on the oxygen and, in the case of the most massive of stars, to iron. The gases around the core continue to expand, and the star becomes a red supergiant, with a radius that might expand as far as jupiter’s orbit around the sun. At this point, energy is generated at a very high rate, and the star does not remain in this stage long.

(10)Because of the great energy production and high temperature of these supergiants, layers of gases are expelled from the core of the star until eventually only the core is left. In the case of low mass stars (such as or sun), this is the last stage of the star’s lifetime. It is now about the size of a planet such as the earth, and it is called a white dwarf. A pint container of the material in a white dwarf would have a mass of 500 tons. White dwarfs cool until, eventually, they do not shine any more, and they float, cold and dark, through the universe.

ลองแปลภาษาอังกฤษเป็นไทยจากเนื้อเรื่องนี้ดูน่ะครับ เอาแบบทุกบรรทัดเลย ลองดูซิว่า เราจะทำได้ไหม เอาแบบไม่ต้องเปิดดิคได้ยิ่งดี แบบถ้าอันไหนไม่ได้จริงๆค่อยเปิด…